DENNIS D. MURPHY, PAUL S. WEILAND, AND KENNETH W. CUMMINS
Conservation biology has provided wildlife managers numerous conservation planning tools, including surrogate species concept. The authors examined the use of surrogate species in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California. Federal and state agencies have applied the surrogate species concept in the region, under the federal and state endangered species acts. During the same period, conservation biologists demonstrated that the surrogate concept is generally unsupported by ecological theory and empirical evidence.